Saturday, April 30, 2016

Developmental Milestones: Language, Fine & Gross Motor Skills

Developmental Milestones for Fine and Gross motor and Speech


DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES
 By the age of one
  • Language
    • Recognizes name
    • Says 2-3 words besides “mama” and “dada”
    • Imitates familiar words
    • Understands simple instructions
    • Recognizes words as symbols for objects: Car – points to garage, cat – meows
  • Gross Motor – large muscle groups such as walking
    • sits without support
    • crawls
    • pulls self to standing position and stands unaided
    • walks with aid
    • rolls a ball in imitation of adult
  • Fine Motor – incorporates the small muscles such as handwriting
    • reaches, grasps, puts object in mouth
    • picks things up with pincer grasp (thumb and one finger)
    • transfers object from one hand to the other
    • drops and picks up toy
Between one and two
  • Language
    • Understands “no”
    • Uses 10 to 20 words, including names
    • Combines two words such as “daddy bye-bye”
    • Waves good-bye and plays pat-a-cake
    • Makes the “sounds” of familiar animals
    • Gives a toy when asked
    • Uses words such as “more” to make wants known
    • Points to his or her toes, eyes, and nose
    • Brings object from another room when asked
  • Gross Motor – large muscle groups such as walking
    • walks alone
    • walks backwards
    • picks up toys from floor without falling
    • pulls toys, pushes toys
    • seats self in child size chair
    • walks up and down stairs with hand held
    • moves to music
  • Fine Motor – incorporates the small muscles such as handwriting
    • builds tower of three small blocks
    • puts four rings on stick
    • places five pegs in pegboard
    • turns pages two or three at a time
    • scribbles
    • turns knobs
    • throws small ball
    • paints with whole arm movement, shifts hands, makes strokes


Between two and three
  • Language
    • Identifies body parts
    • Carries on ‘conversation’ with self and dolls
    • Asks “what’s that?” And “where’s my?”
    • Uses 2-word negative phrases such as “no want”
    • Forms some plurals by adding “s”; book, books
    • Has a 450 word vocabulary
    • Gives first name, holds up fingers to tell age
    • Combines nouns and verbs “mommy go”
    • Understands simple time concepts: “last night”, “tomorrow”
    • Refers to self as “me” rather than by name
    • Tries to get adult attention: “watch me”
    • Likes to hear same story repeated
    • May say “no” when means “yes”
    • Talks to other children as well as adults
    • Solves problems by talking instead of hitting or crying
    • Answers “where” questions
    • Names common pictures and things
    • Uses short sentences like “me want more” or “me want cookie”
    • Matches 3-4 colors, knows big and little
  • Gross Motor – large muscle groups such as walking
    • runs forward well
    • jumps in place with two feet together
    • stands on one foot (with aid)
    • walks on tiptoe
    • kicks a ball forward
  • Fine Motor – incorporates the small muscles such as handwriting
    • strings four large beads
    • turns single pages
    • snips with scissors
    • holds crayon with thumb and fingers (not fist)
    • uses one hand consistently in most activities
    • imitates circular, vertical, horizontal strokes
    • paints with some wrist action; makes dots, lines, circular strokes
    • rolls, pounds, squeezes, and pulls clay
Between three and four
  • Language
    • Can tell a story
    • Has a sentence length of 4-5 words
    • Has a vocabulary of nearly 1000 words
    • Names at least one color
    • Understands “yesterday,” “summer”, “lunchtime”, “tonight”, “little-big”
    • Begins to obey requests like “put the block under the chair”
    • Knows his or her last name, name of street on which he/she lives and several nursery rhymes
  • Gross Motor – large muscle groups such as walking
    • runs around obstacles
    • walks on a line
    • balances on one foot for five to ten seconds
    • hops on one foot
    • pushes, pulls, steers wheeled toys
    • rides tricycle
    • uses slide independently
    • jumps over six inch high object and lands on both feet together
    • throws ball overhead
    • catches a bounce ball
  • Fine Motor – incorporates the small muscles such as handwriting
    • builds tower of nine small blocks
    • drives nails and pegs
    • copies circle
    • imitates cross
    • manipulates clay material (rolls balls, snakes, cookies)
Between four and five
  • Language
    • Has sentence length of 4-5 words
    • Uses past tense correctly
    • Has a vocabulary of nearly 1500 words
    • Points to colors red, blue, yellow and green
    • Identifies triangles, circles and squares
    • Understands “In the morning” , “next”, “noontime”
    • Can speak of imaginary conditions such as “I hope”
    • Asks many questions, asks “who?” And “why?
  • Gross Motor – large muscle groups such as walking
    • walks backward toe-heel
    • jumps forward 10 times without falling
    • walks up and down stair independently, alternating feet
    • turns somersault
  • Fine Motor – incorporates the small muscles such as handwriting
    • cuts on line continuously
    • copies cross
    • copies square
    • prints a some capital letters
Between five and six
  • Language
    • Has a sentence length of 5-6 words
    • Has a vocabulary of around 2000 words
    • Defines objects by their use (you eat with a fork) and can tell what objects are made of
    • Knows spatial relations like “on top”, “behind”, “far” and “near”
    • Knows her address
    • Identifies a penny, nickel and dime
    • Knows common opposites like “big/little”
    • Understands “same” and “different”
    • Counts ten objects
    • Asks questions for information
    • Distinguished left and right hand in herself
    • Uses all types of sentences, for example “let’s go to the store after we eat”
  • Gross Motor – large muscle groups such as walking
    • runs lightly on toes
    • walks on balance beam
    • can cover 2 meters hopping
    • skips on alternate feet &; jumps rope
  • Fine Motor – incorporates the small muscles such as handwriting
    • cuts out simple shapes
    • copies triangle
    • traces diamond
    • copies first name
    • prints numerals 1 to 5
    • colors within lines
    • has adult (tripod) grasp of pencil
    • hand dominance well established
    • pastes and glues appropriately


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